History Class 12 Notes [Chapter-8;राजा,किसान और जमींदार]
This history is class 12 notes. In this, you have been written all those points which are very important for you. you re always asked questions from these points in the exam.
All the points which are important from this chapter are taken and you must read such a time. Once you have read like this, you have read the entire chapter. If you want to read it in Hindi, then the PDF is also given, you can download it and read it.
History notes class 12 notes are available for all the chapters, you must read these points.
Class 12 history notes are also available in PDF. You should also check it once. Notes of all the chapters are available in PDF. Pdf is given below👇
Memory Point: –
- During the sixteenth seventeenth century, about 85 percent of the people in India lived in villages.
- Both small cultivators and Bhumihars – Sambhrata were both associated with agricultural production.
- The basic unit of the agricultural society was the villages in which the farmers lived.
- The main sources of agricultural history were written under the supervision of the Mughal court.
- Documents of Gujarat, Maharashtra, Rajasthan, and East NDA Company is also a source of this tomorrow.
- Raiyat, Mujariyan, kast – kast – are the words used for Kisan.
- Monsoon was the backbone of Indian agriculture.
- Cultivation was done during two main cycles of the season.
- In the medieval period, agriculture was dependent on rainfall, but artificial measures were also adopted for irrigation and by the city, water from the wells, and canal.
- In medieval India, cultivation was not done only for the passing of labor, but in the sources, we often find such labels as gins-e-Klim (the best crops). For example cash crops like sugarcane, cotton. Oilseeds and pulses also used to come in cash crops. Cotton was grown on the soil of the Madhyam Bharat Mdkshani plateau. While Bengal was famous for sugar.
- Vegetables like tomato, potato, and chili, Annas, and Papaya was brought to India in the world.
- There were three Ghatakas of the rural community – the Khetihar Kishan, the Panchayat, and the head of the villages (Mukaddaj or Mandal).
- Occasional compositions use the word wild for those living in the forest.
- A book is written in the seventeenth century in Marwar discusses the Rajputs as farmers.
- In villages where people belonging to many castes lived, diversity was often found in the panchayat.
- Apart from the village panchayat, every caste of the village had its panchayat.
- In rural society, it was difficult to distinguish between farmers and artisans.
- In the agricultural society, women worked shoulder to shoulder with men, working in the fields, such as sowing and harvesting, as well as the grain of the rice crop was a nickel.
- Zamindars used to give some special kinds of services to the state.
- The personal land of the zamindars was called ownership.
- Social relations in the Mughal era as a permit.
- In the Middle Tomorrow, there were two stages of the provision of land revenue – tax assessment and actual collection.
- Farmers were a major section of rural society and the entire administration and monarchy were based on the revenue collected from it.
- Joveatri Careri, a traveler from Italy who passed through India in about 1690, has given a lively picture of how the silver used to reach India through all over the world.
- Due to increasing profits in animal husbandry and horticulture, castes like Ahir, Gujar, and Mali rose above the social ladder.
- Jazmin 18th century sources state that in Bengal the zamindars used to give blacksmiths, carpenters, goldsmiths, etc. daily allowance and cash for food in exchange for their service. This system was called Jajmani.
- The powerful people used to take crops on the issues of villages and exploited the weaker sections.
- Mansabdari Vavastha was a military-bureaucratic system (Mansabdari) at the apex of the Mughal administration. On which was the responsibility of military and civil affairs of the state.
- During this period, due to the presence of workers, the abundance of land, and the mobility of the farmers continuously expanded. The irrigation works used to get the help of the state.
- The deposit was the fixed amount and the amount recovered.
- The officer who collected the revenue was called Aamil Gujar.
- Akbar got the land classified due and determined the Rajsawa accordingly. And Polar, Paroti, Chachar, and Banjar.
- Akbarnama is a historical document composed by Abul Fazl of Akbar’s period in three volumes. In-e-Akbari is a part of such.
- Ain, compiled in five parts (documents), gave details of Akbar’s court, administration, organization of the army, sources to Rajswa, the geography of pharaohs, literary, cultural, and religious customs of the people.
- Classification of land under Akbar’s rule – Polaj is the land in which one crop of one crop was cultivated annually and which was never left vacant. Perotti is the land on which farming was stopped for a few days so that it could regain its lost strength. Chachar is the land that is empty for three and four sections, barren is the land that has not been cultivated for five or more years.
- Mismatches related to Ain and discrepancies in numerical data have been found.
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